Table 2

Treatment, complications and outcomes

Total
(n=21)
Non-survivor
(n=5)
Survivor
(n=16)
P value
Treatment
 ICU admission5 (23.8%)4 (80.0%)1 (6.3%) 0.004*
 Antiviral treatment17 (81.0%)4 (80.0%)13 (81.3%)1.000
 Antibiotic treatment15 (71.4%)5 (100.0%)10 (62.5%)0.262
 Glucocorticoids8 (38.1%)5 (100.0%)3 (18.8%) 0.003*
 Intravenous immunoglobulin5 (23.8%)3 (60.0%)2 (12.5%)0.063
 Non-invasive ventilation4 (19.0%)3 (60.0%)1 (6.3%) 0.028*
 Invasive mechanical ventilation3 (14.3%)3 (60.0%)0 (0.0%) 0.008*
 CRRT2 (9.5%)2 (40.0%)0 (0.0%) 0.048*
 ECMO2 (9.5%)2 (40.0%)0 (0.0%) 0.048*
Complications during hospitalisation
 Secondary infection6 (28.6%)3 (60.0%)3 (18.8%)0.115
 Ascites5 (23.8%)2 (40.0%)3 (18.8%)0.553
 Upper GI bleeding4 (19.0%)3 (60.0%)1 (6.3%) 0.028*
 Acute-on-chronic liver failure1 (4.8%)1 (20.0%)0 (0.0%)0.238
 Acute kidney injury1 (4.8%)1 (20.0%)0 (0.0%)0.238
 Septic shock3 (14.3%)2 (40.0%)1 (6.3%)0.128
 ARDS6 (28.6%)5 (100.0%)1 (6.3%) <0.001*
Length of stay, days16 (11–32)16 (7–39)16 (11–31)0.842
  • One patient died in the emergency department without intensive care. Data are expressed as median (IQR) or n (%). P values were calculated by Mann-Whitney U test or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate.

  • *A two-sided p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

  • ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; CRRT, continuous renal replacement therapy; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; ICU, intensive care unit.