Table 1

Characteristics of the total study cohort (n=402)

VariableNo BO*
(n=273)
BO
(n=129)
P value
Male gender, n (%)127 (46.5%)96 (74.4%)<0.001
Age (years), mean±SD59.1±12.661.6±10.50.06
BMI (kg/m2), median (IQR)26.0 (23.4–29.3)26.6 (24.2–27.7)0.17
Cardiovascular disease, n (%)58 (21.2%)26 (20.2%)0.80
Hypertension, n (%)69 (25.3%)36 (27.9%)0.58
Pulmonary disease, n (%)44 (16.1%)18 (14.0%)0.58
Diabetes, n (%)25 (9.2%)12 (9.3%)0.96
Smoking
 Current, n (%)36 (13.2%)21 (16.3%)0.80
 Former, n (%)107 (39.2%)48 (37.2%)
Alcohol use, n (%)†148 (54.2%)78 (60.5%)0.24
Vegetarian or gluten-free diet, n (%)15 (5.5%)4 (3.1%)0.29
PPI use, n (%)‡178 (65.2%)122 (94.6%)<0.001
Heartburn, n (%)§132 (48.4%)45 (34.9%)0.01
Regurgitation, n (%)§104 (38.1%)44 (34.1%)0.42
Hiatal hernia, n (%)103 (37.7%)102 (79.1%)<0.001
Reflux oesophagitis, n (%)50 (18.3%)14 (10.9%)0.06
BO segment length (cm), median (IQR)NA4 (3–6)NA
  • *No BO; GORD patients and ‘healthy’ controls.

  • †Alcohol intake more than once per month.

  • ‡Daily use of PPIs for at least 1 month before study enrolment.

  • §Symptoms at least once a week.

  • BMI, body mass index;BO, Barrett’s oesophagus;NA, not applicable; PPI, proton pump inhibitor.