Table 7

General characteristics of patients who did not survive, of those with ARDS and of those who were hospitalised

OutcomeOverallDeath (n=7)P valueARDS (n=11)P valueHospitalisation (n=41)P value
YesNoYesNoYesNo
Sex, male 40 (70)6 (86)34 (68)0.66210 (91)30 (65)0.14629 (71)11 (69)0.883
Age, years, median (IQR)65 (57–70)70 (67–77)62 (57–70)0.08868 (63–73)62 (55–70)0.05265 (57–71)60 (54–68)0.162
BMI, kg/m2 , mean (SD)26.0 (21.4–30.6)24.5 (21.7–27.3)26.3 (21.4–31.2)0.18525.5 (21.6–28.2)26.2 (21.3–31.1)0.62525.5 (29.7–21.4)27.4 (21.6–33.2)0.258
HCC as indication to LT20 (35)5 (71)15 (30)0.0848 (73)12 (26) 0.011 15 (37)5 (31)0.703
Very long-term LT21 (37)3 (43)18 (36)0.7014 (36)17 (37)1.00016 (39)5 (31)0.582
Very short-term LT11 (19)2 (29)9 (18)0.6103 (27)8 (17)0.4299 (22)2 (13)0.710
Smoke history7 (14)1 (17)6 (14)1.0001 (10)7 (15)1.0005 (14)2 (14)1.000
Cardiovascular disease21 (37)3 (43)18 (36)0.7005 (46)16 (35)0.51114 (34)7 (44)0.502
Arterial hypertension32 (56)4 (57)28 (56)1.0006 (55)27 (57)1.00022 (54)10 (63)0.544
Diabetes mellitus21 (37)2 (29)19 (38)1.0004 (36)17 (36)1.00014 (34)7 (44)0.502
History of cancer24 (42)5 (71)19 (38)0.1199 (82)15 (33) 0.005 18 (44)6 (38)0.659
Active cancer5 (9)3 (43)2 (4) 0.011 4 (36)1 (2) 0.004 5 (12)0 (0)0.308
Dyspnoea at presentation26 (46)6 (86)20 (41) 0.041 9 (82)17 (39) 0.016 22 (54)4 (27)0.129
Leucocytes, ×1000/μL, median (IQR)4.51 (3.33–6.00)2.95 (1.77–4.51)4.70 (3.65–6.00)0.1133.70 (1.93–5.52)4.70 (3.65–6.00)0.2974.61 (3.39–6.85)3.85 (3.27–5.13)0.170
Platelets, ×1000/μL, median (IQR)160 (91–268)93 (79–110)170 (104–273) 0.044 102 (88–134)183 (104–280)0.064164 (91–270)149 (96–202)0.745
Lymphocytes, ×1000/μL, median (IQR)0.79 (0.40–1.10)0.49 (0.30–0.60)0.80 (0.52–1.18) 0.030 0.49 (0.40–0.76)0.81 (0.58–1.18)0.0640.73 (0.45–1.00)1.02 (0.74–1.22)0.126
AST, U/L, median (IQR)38 (25–53)48 (36–80)35 (24–52)0.13438 (27–57)38 (23–53)0.35845 (27–57)21 (17–29) <0.001
ALT, U/L, median (IQR)30 (20–42)21 (16–74)31 (21–42)0.60222 (16–30)32 (22–44)0.14233 (23–57)21 (18–30) 0.026
Overall immunosuppression reduction22 (39)2 (29)20 (40)0.6954 (36)18 (39)1.00018 (44)4 (25)0.236
Overall immunosuppression discontinuation4 (7)1 (14)3 (6)0.4171 (9)3 (7)1.0004 (10)0 (0)0.568
ACE inhibitors or sartans13 (24)3 (50)10 (20)0.1363 (30)10 (22)0.68510 (25)3 (20)1.000
Oxygen therapy30 (54)7 (100)23 (47) 0.012 11 (100)19 (42) <0.001 29 (71)1 (7) <0.001
Steroids (for COVID-19)19 (35)4 (67)15 (31)0.1676 (60)13 (29)0.07718 (45)1 (7) 0.010
Antibiotics35 (63)7 (100)28 (57) 0.038 10 (91)25 (57) 0.039 30 (73)5 (33) 0.012
 >1 antibiotic16 (29)4 (67)12 (24) 0.049 6 (60)10 (22) 0.024 15 (38)1 (6) 0.023
Antiviral5 (9)1 (14)4 (8)0.5011 (9)4 (9)1.0005 (12)0 (0)0.309
Hydroxychloroquine24 (44)3 (50)21 (43)1.0005 (50)19 (42)0.65522 (55)2 (13) 0.006
  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; LT, liver transplantation; MMF, mycophenolate mofetil,.