Table 1

Patient characteristics and biochemical parameters

Group A: COVID-19 patients without diarrhoea
Group B: COVID-19 patients with ceased diarrhoea (>48 hours)* (n=13)Group C: COVID-19 patients with acute diarrhoea (<48 hours) (n=9)
Onset of symptoms before admission to hospital (days)4 (±1.7)8.6 (±4.8)4.3 (±2.8)
Faecal sample after hospital admission (days)1.7 (±1.4)4.8 (±3.1)1.3 (±1.2)
Underlying condition†50% (n=9)54% (n=7)78% (n=7)
Age58.4 (±17.1)66.3 (±13.1)78.3 (±13.8)
Sex (male)50% (n=9)69% (n=9)67% (n=6)
Nausea11% (n=2)8% (n=1)89% (n=8)
Vomiting6% (n=1)15% (n=2)22% (n=2)
Diarrhoea0% (n=0)100% (n=13)100% (n=9)
Fever (≥37.3°C)89% (n=16)84% (n=11)78% (n=7)
COVID-19-associated respiratory syndrome‡ and cough100% (n=18)100% (n=13)100% (n=9)
X-ray (showing infiltrate)28% (n=5)31% (n=4)55% (n=5)
Muscle ache and fatigue88% (n=16)54% (n=7)89% (n=8)
Antibiotic therapy28% (n=5)15% (n=2)33% (n=3)
Antiviral therapy6% (n=1)0% (n=0)0% (n=0)
ACE1 inhibitor therapy11% (n=2)8% (n=1)0% (n=0)
ACE2 inhibitor therapy6% (n=1)15% (n=2)20% (n=2)
Faecal SARS-COV-2-RNA22% (n=4)61.5% (n=8)0% (n=0)
Calprotectin (µg/g)17.3 (±4.8)37.2 (±14.4)123.2 (±58.8)
Interleukin 6 (ng/L)25.7 (±21.2)45.0 (±29.3)84.3 (±49.1)
LDH (U/L)266.1 (±129.3)270.0 (±71.4)262.8 (±61.7)
CRP (mg/dL)6.0 (±5.0)5.4 (±3.7)5.9 (±5.0)
Leucocytes (109/L)5.5 (±1.8)5.5 (±1.3)5.1 (±1.8)
Haemoglobin (g/L)123.3 (±18.4)121.5 (±18.6)121.5 (±20.7)
Platelet count (109/L)254.5 (±96.3)257.85 (±81.9)282.0 (±96.9)
Quick %97.3 (±9.2)98.2 (±8.1)97.2 (±9.5)
Ferritin (µg/L)736.9 (±568.2)646.3 (±517.9)895.4 (±604.6)
  • *Patients who reported diarrhoea during COVID-19 but without diarrhoea 48 hours before FC testing.

  • †Including smoking, allergies, arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes, malignant diseases, chronic heart disease, chronic liver disease, chronic obstructive respiratory disease and immunosuppressive therapy.

  • ‡Including cough, sputum, haemoptysis, sore throat, nasal obstruction and shortness of breath.

  • COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; CRP, C reactive protein; FC, faecal calprotectin; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.