Table 1

Clinical and biochemical features of patients with NAFLD and the control group

VariablesControl subjectsNAFLNASH
NAFLD non-morbidly obese patients
 Number of subjects92126
 Female/male (n)5/410/1116/10
 Age, years43.8±849.4±1146.7±13
 BMI, kg/m2 24±330±5 *34±6†‡
 Type 2 diabetes (n)0615†‡
 Fasting plasma glucose, mg/dL87±10105±26 *124±39†‡
 Fasting plasma insulin, μU/mL5±2.514±7 *19.6±12.4 †
 HOMA-IR index1.02±0.53.5±1.7 *6.1±6 †
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL188±38203±39196±42
 HDL-cholesterol, mg/dL60±1558±1651.2±15
 LDL-cholesterol, mg/dL110±42124±35120±36
 Triglycerides, mg/dL101±24143±94148±67
 ALT, U/L42±2656±4252±31 †‡
 AST, U/L32±1140±2387±59
Histological features
 Degree of steatosis (0–3)01.5±0.7 *2.2±0.44 †
 Lobular inflammation (0–3)00.7±0.73 *1.24±0.8 †‡
 Hepatocellular ballooning (0–2)00±0 *0.8±0.6 †‡
 Fibrosis stage00±0 *1.61±0.6 †‡
 NAFLD activity score (NAS)02.5±1.19 *4.3±1 †‡
NAFLD morbidly obese patients
 Number of subjects102327
 Female, % 6/412/1115/12
 Age, years44.8±843±948±10
 BMI, kg/m2 55±1453±1349±10
 Type 2 diabetes (n)4818‡
 Fasting plasma glucose, mg/dL105±23101±22138±63 ‡
 Fasting plasma insulin, μU/mL11±8.413±735±45 †‡
 HOMA-IR index2±1.23.1±1.716±40 †‡
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL190±36180±37179±49
 HDL-cholesterol, mg/dL40±1045±1037±6 ‡
 LDL-cholesterol, mg/dL121±36122±28126±43
 Triglycerides, mg/dL128±65154±57191±102
 ALT, U/L19.7±828±27 *43±20†
 AST, U/L19.6±829±2031±14 †
Histological features
 Degree of steatosis, %01.73±0.81 *2.19±0.8 †
 Lobular inflammation (0–3)00.35±0.6 *1.42±0.8†‡
 Hepatocellular ballooning (0–2)00.18±0.4 *1.07±0.62 †‡
 Fibrosis stage00.04±0.2 *1.7±0.6 †‡
 NAFLD activity score (NAS)02.26±1.44 *4.7±2 †‡
  • P value stands for statistical significance using Mann-Whitney U test, except for female/male proportion that p value stands for statistical significance using χ2 test.

  • Results are expressed as mean±SD.

  • *P<0.001 indicates NAFL versus controls.

  • †P<0.001 denotes comparisons between NASH and control subjects.

  • ‡P<0.001 indicates comparisons between NAFL and NASH.

  • ALT and AST, serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HOMA, homeostatic model assessment; IR, insulin resistance; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; NAFL, non-alcoholic fatty liver;NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; NASH, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.