Table 4

Propensity score-matched baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 among none versus current use of PPI groups or none versus past use of PPI usage groups in patients with confirmed laboratory SARS-CoV-2 infection

CharacteristicNone versus current use of PPISMDNone versus past use of PPISMD
NoneCurrent use of PPINonePast use of PPI
Total, N (%)267267148148
Age, years (SD)50.3 (17.9)50.1 (16.6)0.00948.55 (17.1)49.0 (16.9)0.025
Sex, n (%)0.0070.069
 Male100 (37.5)101 (37.8)58 (39.2)63 (42.6)
 Female167 (62.6)166 (62.2)90 (60.8)85 (57.4)
Region of residence, n (%)0.0370.027
 Rural150 (56.2)145 (54.3)71 (48.0)73 (49.3)
 Urban117 (43.8)122 (45.7)77 (52.0)75 (50.7)
History of diabetes mellitus, n (%)31 (11.6)24 (9.0)0.07816 (10.8)20 (13.5)0.079
History of cardiovascular disease, n (%)18 (6.7)18 (6.7)<0.0016 (4.1)8 (5.4)0.051
History of cerebrovascular disease, n (%)14 (5.2)15 (5.6)0.0134 (2.7)6 (4.1)0.050
History of COPD, n (%)4 (1.5)6 (2.2)0.0527 (4.7)5 (3.4)0.063
History of asthma, n (%)17 (6.4)23 (8.6)0.07812 (8.1)13 (8.8)0.023
History of hypertension, n (%)62 (23.2)61 (22.9)0.00932 (21.6)33 (22.3)0.016
History of chronic kidney disease, n (%)10 (3.7)8 (3.0)0.0393 (2.0)2 (1.4)0.033
Charlson comorbidity index, n (%)0.0160.134
 0186 (69.7)166 (62.2)101 (68.2)97 (65.5)
 129 (10.9)43 (16.1)21 (14.2)16 (10.8)
 ≥252 (19.5)58 (21.7)26 (17.6)35 (23.7)
Current use of medication, n (%)
 Systemic steroid79 (29.6)79 (29.6)<0.00136 (24.3)30 (20.3)0.096
 Metformin22 (8.2)15 (5.6)0.0909 (6.1)12 (8.1)0.080
 Aspirin10 (3.8)14 (5.2)0.0674 (2.7)6 (4.1)0.060
Composite endpoint 1*, n (%)32 (12.0)49 (18.4)13 (8.8)15 (10.1)
 Minimally adjusted OR†1.00 (reference)1.69 (1.18 to 2.56)1.00 (reference)1.11 (0.46 to 2.64)
 Fully adjusted OR‡1.00 (reference)1.63 (1.03 to 2.53)1.00 (reference)0.98 (0.39 to 2.47)
Composite endpoint 2§, n (%)14 (5.2)24 (9.0)5 (3.4)7 (4.7)
 Minimally adjusted OR†1.00 (reference)1.82 (1.34 to 2.98)1.00 (reference)1.02 (0.29 to 3.65)
 Fully adjusted OR‡1.00 (reference)1.79 (1.30 to 3.10)1.00 (reference)1.18 (0.27 to 5.13)
  • An SMD <0.1 indicates no major imbalance. All SMD values were <0.1 in the each propensity score-matched cohort, except Charlson Comorbidity Index among none versus past use of PPI groups.

  • Numbers in bold indicate significant differences (p<0.05).

  • *Composite endpoint 1 consisted of requirement of oxygen therapy, admission to the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation or death.

  • †Minimally adjusted: adjustment for age and sex.

  • ‡Fully adjusted: adjustment for age; sex; region of residence (urban or rural); history of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, COPD, hypertension and chronic kidney disease; Charlson Comorbidity Index (0, 1 or ≥2); and current use of systemic steroid, metformin and aspirin.

  • §Composite endpoint 2 consisted of admission to the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation or death.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; PPI, proton pump inhibitor; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; SMD, standardised mean difference.