Table 5

Propensity score-matched subgroup analyses for the potential association of the likelihood on SARS-CoV-2 test positivity with duration of PPI usage among all patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 and the likelihood on clinical outcomes with duration of PPI usage among patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection

EventVariableNoneDuration of PPI usage (days)
<30≥30
None versus current use of PPI among all patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 (N=27 746)
COVID-19Event number/total number (%)434/13873 (3.1)212/7191 (2.9)150/6682 (2.2)
Minimally adjusted OR* (95% CI)1 (reference)0.92 (0.79 to 1.08)0.86 (0.71 to 1.04)
Fully adjusted OR† (95% CI)1 (reference)0.94 (0.80 to 1.11)0.85 (0.72 to 1.01)
None versus current use of PPI among patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (N=534)
Composite endpoint 1‡Event number/total number (%)32/267 (12.0)34/175 (19.4)15/92 (16.3)
Minimally adjusted OR* (95% CI)1 (reference)1.79 (1.37 to 2.34)1.40 (0.94 to 2.32)
Fully adjusted OR† (95% CI)1 (reference)1.77 (1.29 to 2.04)1.35 (0.93 to 2.20)
Composite endpoint 2§Event number/total number (%)14/267 (5.2)18/175 (10.36/92 (6.5)
Minimally adjusted OR* (95% CI)1 (reference)1.92 (1.46 to 2.84)1.29 (0.90 to 2.05)
Fully adjusted OR† (95% CI)1 (reference)1.90 (1.46 to 2.77)1.35 (0.91 to 2.26)
  • Numbers in bold indicate significant differences (p<0.05).

  • *Minimally adjusted: adjustment for age and sex.

  • †Fully adjusted: adjustment for age; sex; region of residence (urban or rural); history of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, COPD, hypertension and chronic kidney disease; Charlson Comorbidity Index (0, 1 or ≥2); and current use of systemic steroid, metformin and aspirin.

  • ‡Composite endpoint 1 consisted of requirement of oxygen therapy, admission to the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation or death.

  • §Composite endpoint 2 consisted of admission to the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation or death.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; PPI, proton pump inhibitor; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.