Table 1

Baseline characteristics of Helicobacter pylori first-line empirical treatments by region

VariableOverallEastSouth-eastSouth-westCentreNorth
Number of patients21 5333679429910 11819851452
Female, N (%)12 743 (59.2)2180 (59.0)2492 (58.0)6147 (60.8)1192 (60.0)732 (50.0)
Age, mean (SD)50.4 (18.0)46.4 (15.0)52.2 (15.0)50.5 (15.0)52.2 (15.0)52.7 (18.0)
Penicillin allergy, N (%)670 (3.1)57 (1.5)126 (2.9)414 (4.1)13 (0.7)60 (4.1)
Indication
 Dyspepsia17 800 (82.7)2679 (7.8)3507 (81.6)8595 (84.9)1896 (95.5)1123 (77.3)
 Ulcer disease3733 (17.3)1000 (27.2)792 (18.4)1523 (15.1)89 (4.5)329 (2.7)
Culture, N (%)2396 (11.1)67 (1.8)219 (5.1)365 (3.6)1397 (70.4)348 (24.0)
 No resistance1087 (45.4)20 (29.7)143 (65.3)211 (57.8)552 (39.5)209 (60.1)
 C543 (22.7)22 (32.4)27 (12.1)54 (14.9)401 (28.7)36 (10.2)
 M766 (32.0)25 (37.8)49 (22.2)100 (27.5)444 (31.8)103 (29.7)
 Dual C+M321 (13.4)2 (2.7)15 (7.1)18 (5.0)233 (16.7)19 (5.6)
Treatment length, N (%)
 7 days4109 (19.6)568 (16.2)2548 (60.0)165 (1.7)68 (3.8)760 (53.9)
 10 days11 461 (54.8)2080 (59.2)981 (23.1)6220 (62.5)1691 (94.0)489 (34.7)
 14 days5361 (25.6)867 (24.7)719 (16.9)3574 (35.9)39 (2.2)162 (11.5)
PPI dose, N (%)
 Low10 090 (48.9)1813 (56.6)2556 (60.6)3.920 (39.1)718 (40.3)1083 (76.9)
 Standard4211 (20.4)1135 (35.6)306 (7.3)2572 (25.7)75 (4.2)123 (8.7)
 High6325 (30.7)253 (7.9)1357 (32.2)3525 (35.2)987 (55.4)203 (14.4)
Compliance, N (%)
 No (<90% drug intake)592 (3.0)97 (2.7)120 (3.0)287 (3.0)63 (4.3)25 (1.8)
 Yes (≥90% drug intake)18 821 (97.0)3447 (97.3)3239 (96.4)9370 (97.0)1410 (95.7)1355 (98.2)
 Unknown2119 (9.8)134 (3.6)940 (24.5)461 (4.4)512 (26)72 (5.0)
Most frequent treatments, N (%)
 PPI-C+A8478 (39.4)1775 (48.2)2571 (59.3)3160 (31.2)132 (6.6)840 (57.9)
 PPI-C+M1046 (4.9)28 (0.8)816 (19.0)127 (1.3)4 (0.2)71 (4.9)
 PPI-A+M561 (2.6)56 (1.5)92 (2.1)51 (0.5)3 (0.2)359 (24.7)
 PPI-A+L405 (1.9)227 (6.2)28 (0.7)132 (1.3)6 (0.3)12 (0.8)
 PPI-C+A+T seq1228 (5.7)9 (0.2)68 (1.6)4 (0.0)1128 (56.8)19 (1.3)
 PPI-C+A+M seq620 (2.9)25 (0.7)175 (4.1)281 (38.6)92 (4.6)47 (3.2)
 PPI-C+A+T conc190 (0.9)1 (0.0)51 (1.2)0 (0.0)121 (6.1)17 (1.2)
 PPI-C+A+M conc4176 (19.4)14 (0.4)250 (5.8)3910 (38.6)1 (0.1)1 (0.1)
 PPI-C+A+B1756 (8.2)800 (21.7)0 (0.0)956 (9.4)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 PPI-M+Tc+B192 (0.9)30 (0.8)7 (0.2)41 (0.4)99 (5.0)15 (1.0)
 PPI-M+D+B59 (0.3)0 (0.0)2 (0.0)56 (0.6)0 (0.0)1 (0.1)
 PPI+single capsule*1351 (6.3)0 (0.0)1 (0.0)1144 (11.3)189 (9.5)17 (1.2)
 Other1471 (6.8)714 (19.4)238 (5.5)256 (2.5)210 (10.6)53 (3.7)
  • Low dose PPI: 4.5–27 mg omeprazole equivalents, two times per day (ie, 20 mg omeprazole equivalents, two times per day), standard dose PPI: 32–40 mg omeprazole equivalents, two times per day (ie, 40 mg omeprazole equivalents, two times per day), high dose PPI: 54–128 mg omeprazole equivalents,two times per day (ie, 60 mg omeprazole equivalents, two times per day).

  • *Three-in-one single capsule containing bismuth, tetracycline and metronidazole.

  • A, amoxicillin; B, bismuth salts; C, clarithromycin; Conc, concomitant; D, doxycycline; L, levofloxacin; M, metronidazole; PPI, proton pump inhibitor; Seq, sequential; T, tinidazole; Tc, tetracycline.