Table 1

Clinical characteristics of patients

CharacteristicsACLF
(n=130)
ACHD
(n=70)
LC
(n=70)
CHB
(n=70)
NC
(n=60)
 Age (years)44.5 (36.2, 55.0)41.5 (36.0, 51.7)46.0 (40.0, 52.5)43.5 (38.0, 50.0)46.5 (33.8, 53.0)
 Male (No.)86.2% (112)81.4% (57)74.3% (52)77.1% (54)56.7% (34) ***
HBV DNA level (IU/mL)Significance†Significance†Significance†
 ≤2×1025.4% (7)22.8% (16)91.4% (64)81.4% (57)NA
 2×102–2×10666.9% (87)52.9% (37)8.6% (6)12.9% (9)NA
 >2×10627.7% (36)24.3% (17)0.0% (0)5.7% (4)NA
Laboratory data
 Alanine aminotransferase (U/L)252.0 (93.0, 592.0)160.0 (60.3, 556.0)24.5 (18.0, 32.0)***23.2 (17.0, 29.8)***19.0 (14.0, 25.0)***
 Aspartate aminotransferase (U/L)147.5 (101.3, 290.8)115.0 (59.8, 261.8)*23.5 (19.3, 29.8)***22.0 (20.0, 26.8)***20.0 (18.0, 25.0)***
 Albumin (g/L)31.5 (28.5, 33.8)32.4 (29.9, 36.0)*47.6 (45.6, 48.8)***48.7 (46.5, 51.1)***47.7 (46.1, 49.1)***
 Total bilirubin (µmol/L)352.5 (262.9, 437.9)179.9 (120.0, 286.3)***13.2 (11.0, 17.0)***13.0 (9.2, 16.0)***11.0 (8.5, 14.0)***
 Alkaline phosphatase (U/L)137.0 (110.5, 166.0)118.0 (99.3, 143.8)**70.0 (58.3, 90.0)***64.5 (50.5, 79.8)***67.0 (55.0, 84.0)***
 γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (U/L)77.8 (56.0, 115.4)88.6 (49.5, 135.7)22.0 (17.0, 37.8)***20.5 (13.0, 32.8)***19.0 (12.8, 27.0)***
 Creatinine (μmol/L)67.0 (58.0, 80.8)66.0 (58.0, 76.0)70.5 (62.7, 81.0)75.0 (65.0, 85.0)70.5 (57.7, 81.0)
 Sodium (mmol/L)137.0 (135.0, 139.0)138.0 (137.0, 140.0)**141.0 (140.0, 142.0)***141.0 (140.0, 143.0)***141.0 (140.0, 143.0)***
 White blood cell count (109/L)7.6 (6.1, 10.3)6.1 (4.2, 7.6)***5.1 (4.0, 6.3)***5.5 (4.7, 6.3)***6.1 (5.4, 6.9)***
 Haemoglobin (g/L)125.0 (116.2, 136.0)133.0 (115.5, 143.7)153.0 (142.5, 158.8)***151.0 (140.0, 162.0)***149.0 (136.8, 160.0)***
 Haematocrit (%)35.6 (32.5, 38.9)37.6 (32.6, 42.5)*45.5 (42.9, 47.3)***44.5 (41.2, 46.9)***44.1 (40.7, 47.6)***
 Platelet count (109/L)112.0 (74.0, 145.0)141.0 (76.5, 186.0)155.5 (117.0, 207.8)***174.0 (139.0, 214.0) ***218.5 (188.5, 257.2)***
 INR2.3 (1.8, 3.0)1.4 (1.2, 1.7)***1.0 (1.0, 1.1)***1.0 (0.9, 1.1)***NA
 Alpha fetoprotein (μg/L)88.8 (34.8, 235.3)62.4 (5.7, 301.6)2.2 (1.8, 2.8)***2.5 (1.9, 3.4)***2.8 (2.0, 4.0)***
Organ failure (No.)
 Liver94.6% (123)35.7% (25)***0***0***0***
 Coagulation42.3% (55)5.7% (4)***0***0***0***
 Kidney6.2% (8)0000
 Cerebral7.7% (10)0*0 *0*0*
 Lung1.5% (2)0000
 Circulation0.8% (1)0000
Severity score
 COSSH-ACLFs6.2 (5.7, 6.8)NANANANA
 CLIF-C ACLFs42.0 (37.4, 45.9)NANANANA
 MELD24.6 (20.7, 28.6)NANANANA
Transplant-free mortality rate (number of deceased patients)‡
 28-day33.0% (37)2.9% (2)***0***0***NA
 90-day46.0% (47)2.9% (2)***0***0***NA
  • Data are presented as the means±SD, medians (p25, p75) or percentages (numbers of patients).

  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01 and ***p<0.001 for comparisons between the ACHD/LC/CHB/NC and ACLF groups.

  • †P value (<0.001) for comparisons of the HBV DNA distribution between the ACHD/LC/CHB/NC and ACLF groups.

  • ‡Twelve patients with ACLF underwent liver transplantation and were considered lost to follow-up for the mortality calculation. Six patients with ACLF were lost to the 28-day follow-up analysis and 10 patients were lost to the 90-day follow-up analysis.

  • ACHD, acute-on-chronic hepatic dysfunction; ACLF, acute-on-chronic liver failure; CHB, chronic hepatitis B; CLIF-C ACLFs, Chronic Liver Failure Consortium ACLF score; COSSH-ACLFs, Chinese Group on the Study of Severe Hepatitis B-ACLF score; INR, international normalised ratio; LC, liver cirrhosis; MELD, model for end-stage liver disease; NC, normal controls.