Table 3

Abnormal liver biochemistries during follow-up among patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 with or without primary end point (a composite end point of admission to intensive care unit, use of invasive mechanical ventilation and death)

Without primary end point
(n=761)
With primary end point
(n=55)
P value
Peak ALT
 Median (IQR)35 (21–64)106 (59–201)<0.001
 <ULN437 (57.4)8 (14.5)<0.001
 ≥1× to <2×ULN181 (23.8)9 (16.4)
 ≥2× to <5×ULN117 (15.4)24 (43.6)
 ≥5× to <10×ULN21 (2.8)11 (20.0)
 ≥10×ULN5 (0.7)3 (5.5)
Peak ALP
 Median ×ULN (IQR)0.6 (0.5–0.8)0.9 (0.6–1.1)<0.001
<ULN712 (93.6)35 (63.6)<0.001
 ≥1× to <2×ULN46 (6.0)19 (34.5)
 ≥2× to <5×ULN3 (0.4)1 (1.8)
 ≥5× to <10×ULN0 (0)0 (0)
 ≥10×ULN0 (0)0 (0)
Peak total bilirubin
 Median (IQR)19 (13–27)28 (18–44)<0.001
<ULN376 (49.4)15 (27.3)<0.001
 ≥1× to <2×ULN319 (41.9)20 (36.4)
 ≥2× to <5×ULN63 (8.3)16 (29.1)
 ≥5× to <10×ULN3 (0.4)3 (5.5)
 ≥10×ULN0 (0)1 (1.8)
Without primary end point
(n=214)
With primary end point (n=22)
Peak AST*
 Median (IQR)33 (25–49)96 (48–141)<0.001
 <ULN129 (60.3)3 (13.6)<0.001
 ≥1× to <2×ULN63 (29.4)7 (31.8)
 ≥2× to <5×ULN19 (8.9)12 (54.5)
 ≥5× to <10×ULN3 (1.4)0 (0)
 ≥10×ULN0 (0)0 (0)
Without primary end point (n=227)With primary end point (n=53)
Peak AST*
 Median (IQR)1.1 (1.1–1.2)1.2 (1.1–1.3)<0.001
 Peak INR≥1.71 (0.4)2 (3.8)0.093
  • The ULN of ALT was 40 U/L according the the clinical practice guideline of The Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver. The ULN of AST was 40 U/L. The ULN of ALP was specific to each laboratory and the age and gender of the patient. The ULN of total bilirubin was 19 µmol/L.

  • *Based on patients who had baseline measurement and at least one measurement during follow-up.

  • ALP, alkaline phosphatase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; CoV, coronavirus; INR, international normalised ratio; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; ULN, upper limit of normal.