Table 1

Cohort characteristics

CD, n=205UC, n=124IBS, n=223HC, n=872
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
Age40.62 (14.19)*†46.65 (14.83)†‡41.44 (12.22)*‡45.53 (13.50)
Number of males (%)68 (33.17)†*§60 (48.39)†‡38 (17.04)*‡§420 (48.17)
BMI24.69 (4.80)*†26.01 (4.41)†25.30 (4.39)25.25 (4.06)
Smokers (%)56 (27.86)*†§15 (12.30)*†‡54 (24.22)§155 (17.86)
Reads per sample22 074 563*§
(7 406 746)
21 844 547*‡
(7 418 645)
34 408 337‡§
(12 613 562)
33 724 784
(11 388 819)
Medication use, n (%)
 ACE inhibitors10 (4.88)*7 (5.65)*3 (1.35)*38 (4.36)
 AngII-receptor antagonist3 (1.46)*3 (2.42)*8 (3.59)*23 (2.64)
 Ca-channel blocker3 (1.46)*3 (2.42)*6 (2.69)*15 (1.72)
 Insulin3 (1.46)*4 (3.23)*1 (0.45)*3 (0.34)
 Metformin2 (0.98)*3 (2.42)*2 (0.90)*11 (1.26)
 Statins8 (3.90)*14 (11.29)*12 (5.38)*39 (4.47)
Macronutrients g/day
 Protein67.09 (24.12)*71.71 (22.03)68.06 (16.12)*74.79 (21.25)
 Plant protein28.52 (12.78)*30.85 (12.08)27.34 (7.70)*30.79 (10.52)
 Animal protein38.65 (15.58)*40.97 (14.57)40.76 (11.92)*44.05 (15.23)
 Fat76.89 (38.91)80.66 (33.76)71.77 (22.86)*78.17 (29.73)
 Carbohydrates226.62 (103.8)229.10 (91.61)208.24 (62.75)*228.37 (76.93)
 Alcohol4.13 (7.46)*4.63 (6.11)*6.60 (7.53)*8.53 (9.39)
 Total calories1939.91 (818.23)2010.44 (727.18)1797.61 (475.96)*1976.17 (621.30)
Food groups g/day
 Alcohol55.43 (114.71)*63.76 (91.50)*83.42 (106.53)*121.06 (161.63)
 Breads130.75 (87.16)133.65 (73.03)117.58 (54.57)*137.43 (68.63)
 Cheese26.24 (32.64)*28.25 (24.58)24.96 (19.24)*31.78 (27.65)
 Dairy228.03 (224.17)*256.82 (185.99)260.96 (201.40)288.25 (194.65)
 Non-alcoholic drinks220.89 (250.73)*157.06 (230.85)162.67 (204.32)144.30 (192.27)
 Nuts9.65 (17.23)*12.25 (18.76)12.15 (12.47)14.46 (16.04)
 Pastry27.29 (24.74)*33.21 (27.27)32.47 (22.32)31.69 (24.06)
 Potatoes83.94 (70.42)91.67 (65.65)66.80 (46.61)*78.27 (52.13)
 Prepared meal45.84 (53.29)*51.20 (72.41)*58.16 (54.44)56.71 (52.61)
 Spreads24.63 (29.17)23.58 (17.90)18.88 (14.82)*22.33 (17.48)
 Vegetables98.02 (76.34)*107.34 (65.78)107.45 (58.07)109.40 (64.54)
  • Mean (SD) unless stated otherwise. Cohort characteristics and food groups that significantly differed between CD, UC, IBS and controls. Full descriptive statistics can be found in online supplemental table 2. Differences in age, sex, BMI, smoking status and sequencing depth were tested between each cohort and all other cohorts. Differences in food intake and medication use were tested between each cohort and controls. χ2 test was performed for categorical variables and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney (WMW) test for continuous data.

  • *Significant difference compared with HC (FDR<0.05).

  • †Significant difference UC vs CD.

  • ‡Significant difference UC vs IBS.

  • §Significant difference CD vs IBS.

  • AngII, angiotensin II; BMI, body mass index; Ca, calcium; CD, Crohn’s disease; FDR, false discovery rate; g, gram; HC, healthy controls; IBS, irritable bowel syndrome; UC, ulcerative colitis.