Table 2

Overview of diet-gut microbiome associations consistent across cohorts in this study and their pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory role

Findings in this studySupporting studies
TaxaDiet (↑)Diet (↓)Pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory roleReferences
Bifidobacterium sppPlant protein, carbohydrates, bread, fruitProtein, animal protein, fat, fish, savoury snacks, red wine, butterSCFA synthesis (acetate); linked to dense mucosal barrier, reduced LPS levels and raised efficacy of cancer immunotherapy; depleted in IBD, IBS, obesity 13 15 22 35 41 51 52
Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii Buttermilk, cluster of fermented dairyNo negative associationsSCFA and thiamine synthesis, anti-cancer activities 13 26 53
Eubacterium sppPlant protein, cereals, fruit, red wineCarbohydrates, non-alcoholic drinks, soft drinksSCFA (butyrate) and phenolic acid synthesis; depleted in IBD 13 22 35
Roseburia sppFish, nuts, vegetables, plant protein, cereals, tea, legumes, vegetables, fruitTotal kcal, sugar, savoury snacks, meat, gravy, sweetened milk drinksSCFA synthesis (butyrate) and anti-inflammatory effects; depleted in IBD 13 19 22 54
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Red wine, legumes, fruit, lean beef, fish, nuts, fatCarbohydrates soft drinks, sweets, syrupSCFA synthesis (butyrate) and anti-inflammatory effects; depleted in IBD 13 19 22 35 55
(phylum) Firmicutes and clusters of Ruminococcus gnavus, Lachnospiraceae bacteria, Clostridium boltea, Coprobacillus Protein, animal protein, fat intake, cheese cluster of fast food and soft drinksPlant protein, carbohydrates, breadEnriched in obesity, increased energy harvesting capacity 19 44
Bacteroides fragilis Cheese, custardCluster of breads and legumesOpportunistic pathogen with increased abundance in IBD and colorectal cancer, raised LPS levels 22 32 41
Escherichia coli No positive associations in the meta-analysisCluster of breads and legumesIncreased abundance in IBD and colorectal cancer, raised LPS levels 18 22 32
(family) ErysipelotrichaceaeAnimal protein, soft drinks, syrupPlant proteinPro-inflammatory; associated with colorectal cancer, hypercholesterolaemia, and obesity. 56 57
Streptococcus sppProtein, animal protein, fat, cheese, yoghurt drink, custardPlant protein, nutsIncreased in IBD, alcoholism, liver cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, colon cancer and IMIDs such as MS, ankylosing spondylitis and arthritis 2 22 32 43 58
Blautia sppAnimal protein, alcohol, meat, cheese, soft drinks, fast food pattern (R. gnavus cluster)Plant protein, carbohydrates, fruit, breadIncreased in IBD, MS, ankylosing spondylitis and arthritis 2 22 42
  • Diet (↑) positive relationship; Diet (↓) negative relationship.

  • IMIDs, immune-mediated inflammatory diseases; kcal, caloric intake; LPS, lipopolysaccharides; MS, multiple sclerosis; ref, reference; SCFA, short-chain fatty acid; spp, species.