Table 4

Comparison between first and second SARS-CoV-2 waves

First wave (February–June 2020)Second wave (July–November 2020)P value
n=51n=62
Age at symptoms (years)59 (53–63)57 (52–64)0.58
Site of highest intensity of care, n (%)
 Outpatient10 (19.6)23 (37.1)0.093
 Ward25 (49.0)27 (43.6)
 ICU16 (31.4)12 (19.4)
MELD17 (14–22)15.5 (11–20)0.30
Number of comorbidities1 (0–2)1 (1–2)0.23
Symptoms, n (%)
 Fever>37.2°C32 (62.7)42 (67.7)0.58
 Cough25 (49)39 (62.9)0.14
 Dyspnoea16 (31.4)14 (22.6)0.30
 Fatigue5 (9.8)14 (22.6)0.071
 Confusion6 (11.8)8 (12.9)0.86
 Diarrhoea7 (13.7)6 (9.7)0.50
Ground-glass opacities, n (%)34 (66.7)27 (44.3)0.018
Respiratory support29 (56.9)27 (43.6)0.16
Acute decompensations, n (%)
 No33 (64.7)42 (67.7)0.56
 Yes15 (29.4)19 (30.7)
 Yes, unrelated to COVID-193 (5.9)1 (1.6)
ACLF, n (%)
 No40 (78.4)53 (85.5)0.57
 Yes9 (17.7)8 (12.9)
 Yes, unrelated to COVID-192 (3.9)1 (1.6)
COVID-19 therapy, n (%)
 High-dose steroid2 (3.9)5 (8.1)0.45
 Low-molecular weight heparin8 (15.7)21 (33.9)0.028
60-day mortality probability, % (95% CI): overall35.3 (23.9 to 50.0)25.9 (16.2 to 39.9)0.23
60-day mortality probability, % (95% CI): in hospitalised patients43.9 (30.0 to 60.3)41.2 (26.5 to 61.0)0.72
Cause of death, (%)
 Respiratory failure8 (36.4)2 (13.3)0.31
 Liver failure+respiratory failure10 (45.5)10 (66.7)
 Liver failure without respiratory failure3 (13.6)1 (6.7)
 Other causes+respiratory failure1 (4.6)2 (13.3)
  • ACLF, acute-on-chronic liver failure; MELD, Model for End-stage Liver Disease.