Table 1

Risk stratification of endoscopic procedures based on the risks of haemorrhage and of intervention required to treat a complication

High-risk proceduresLow-risk procedures
Endoscopic polypectomy*Diagnostic procedures±biopsy sampling
ERCP with sphincterotomyBiliary or pancreatic stenting
AmpullectomyDevice-assisted enteroscopy without polypectomy
Endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissectionOesophageal, enteral or colonic stenting
Endoscopic dilatation of strictures in the upper or lower GI tractEndoscopic ultrasound without sampling or interventional therapy
Endoscopic therapy of varices
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling or with interventional therapy
Oesophageal or gastric radiofrequency ablation
  • *Consider cold snare resection of polyps <1 cm on continued clopidogrel monotherapy.

  • ERCP, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.