Table 3

Univariable and multivariable analysis of factors associated with clarithromycin, levofloxacin and metronidazole resistance in Europe

Clarithyromycin (n=527)Levofloxacin (n=522)Metronidazole (n=527)
Univariable analysisMultivariable analysisUnivariable analysisMultivariable analysisUnivariable analysisMultivariable analysis
OR95% CIP valuesOR95% CIP valuesOR95% CIP valuesOR95% CIP valuesOR95% CIP valuesOR95% CIP values
Gender 0.7880.6040.6360.5260.6670.596
Men111111
Women0.940.61 to 1.450.890.57 to 1.381.120.71 to 1.750.870.56 to 1.351.090.74 to 1.591.110.76 to 1.63
Age (years) 0.7230.5380.4650.6080.5860.841
<50111111
≥500.920.60 to 1.430.870.56 to 1.361.180.75 to 1.870.890.57 to 1.390.90.62:1.311.040.70 to 1.54
Region of birth 0.00050.00070.012
Northern Europe*111111
Western/Central Europe†3.221.14 to 9.130.0283.151.10 to 8.970.03210.462.37 to 46.230.0022.850.99 to 8.180.0511.780.88 to 3.600.1111.780.87 to 3.640.112
Southern Europe‡3.821.48 to 9.840.0053.81.47 to 9.830.0056.811.62 to 28.640.0083.631.40 to 9.380.0081.10.59 to 2.030.7651.090.59 to 2.030.776
Outside Europe0.830.19 to 3.670.8070.780.18 to 3.490.7468.471.76 to 40.810.0070.770.17 to 3.430.732.751.23 to 6.140.0142.81.23 to 6.380.014
Endoscopy finding 0.1590.1970.326
Normal111
Ulcer/erosions1.750.84 to 3.610.1331.860.88 to 3.940.1031.340.76 to 2.370.309
Inflammation1.850.95 to 3.610.071.750.87 to 3.510.1140.970.58 to 1.640.921
  • *Northern Europe: Ireland, Norway, Lithuania, Latvia, The Netherlands and Denmark.

  • †Western/Central Europe: Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Bulgaria and Poland.

  • ‡Southern Europe: Croatia, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain.