Table 1

Propensity score-matched additional analysis for the association of the risk on clinical outcomes with PPI usage among patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (none vs current use of PPI among patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (n=534))

EventVariableNoneDose of PPI usage
Once-daily PPI useTwice-daily PPI use or more
Composite endpoint 1*Event number/total number (%)32/267 (12.0)38/222 (17.1)11/45 (24.4)
Minimally adjusted OR† (95% CI)1 (reference)1.54 (0.93 to 2.55) 2.39 (1.11 to 5.17)
Fully adjusted OR‡ (95% CI)1 (reference)1.49 (0.87 to 2.50) 2.36 (1.08 to 5.10)
Composite endpoint 2§Event number/total number (%)14/267 (5.2)17/222 (7.7)7/45 (15.6)
Minimally adjusted OR† (95% CI)1 (reference)1.51 (0.74 to 3.14) 3.35 (1.27 to 8.80)
Fully adjusted OR‡ (95% CI)1 (reference)1.49 (0.71 to 3.10) 3.30 (1.22 to 8.73)
Duration of PPI usage
None 7–30 days ≥30 days
Composite endpoint 1*Event number/total number (%)32/267 (12.0)29/149 (19.5)15/92 (16.3)
Minimally adjusted OR† (95% CI)1 (reference) 1.78 (1.04 to 3.08)1.40 (0.94 to 2.32)
Fully adjusted OR‡ (95% CI)1 (reference) 1.76 (1.01 to 3.05)1.35 (0.93 to 2.20)
Composite endpoint 2§Event number/total number (%)14/267 (5.2)16/149 (10.7)6/92 (6.5)
Minimally adjusted OR† (95% CI)1 (reference) 2.18 (1.04 to 4.61)1.29 (0.90 to 2.05)
Fully adjusted OR‡ (95% CI)1 (reference) 2.16 (1.02 to 4.58)1.35 (0.91 to 2.26)
Current PPI users (prehospitalisation PPI usage)
None Without posthospitalisation PPI usage With posthospitalisation PPI usage
Composite endpoint 1*Event number/total number (%)32/267 (12.0)37/236 (15.7)12/31 (38.7)
Minimally adjusted OR† (95% CI)1 (reference)1.38 (0.83 to 2.28) 4.65 (2.06 to 10.45)
Fully adjusted OR‡ (95% CI)1 (reference)1.34 (0.80 to 2.25) 4.60 (2.03 to 10.38)
Composite endpoint 2§Event number/total number (%)14/267 (5.2)20/236 (8.5)4/31 (12.9)
Minimally adjusted OR† (95% CI)1 (reference)1.68 (0.84 to 3.42)2.69 (0.84 to 8.72)
Fully adjusted OR‡ (95% CI)1 (reference)1.66 (0.81 to 3.35)2.65 (0.80 to 8.68)
  • Number in bold indicate significant differences (p<0.05).

  • *Composite endpoint 1 consisted of requirement of oxygen therapy, admission to the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation or death.

  • †Minimally adjusted: adjustment for age and sex.

  • ‡Fully adjusted: adjustment for age; sex; region of residence (urban or rural); history of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, COPD, hypertension and chronic kidney disease; Charlson comorbidity index (0, 1 or ≥2); and current use of systemic steroid, metformin and aspirin.

  • §Composite endpoint 2 consisted of admission to the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation or death.

  • ¶Posthospitalisation PPI usage was defined as in-hospital PPI use in general wards, not intensive care units.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; PPI, proton pump inhibitor; ;SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.