Table 2

List of metabolites selected for the biomarker signature

Metabolite nameOntology classBiological background
Beta-caroteneVitamins, cofactors and relatedExogenous compound, lipid malabsorption
(Subclass: diet related)
Exogenous compound, lipid malabsorption
Behenic acid (C22:0)Complex lipids, fatty acids and related
(Subclass: fatty acids)
Poorly absorbable, de novo synthesis, ceramide related
Indole-3-acetic acidAmino acids and relatedAltered bioavailability due to microbiome changes
Hippuric acidMiscellaneous
(Subclass: microbiome related)
MannoseCarbohydrates and relatedAltered blood glucose levels due to impaired endocrine function inhibits mannose conversion to glucose.
Ceramide (d18:1, C24:1)Complex lipids, fatty acids and related
(Subclass: Sphingolipids)
Increased in response to cellular stress (ie, fibrosis and calcifications)
N-acetylcytidineNucleobases and relatedIncreased in chronic inflammation