Table 1

Age-standardised participant characteristics of person-years according to average beverage intake in adulthood among women younger than age 50 years in the NHSII, 1991–2015*

CharacteristicSugar-sweetened beveragesArtificially sweetened beveragesFruit juice
<1 serving/week≥2 servings/day<1 serving/week≥2 servings/day<1 serving/week≥2 servings/day
Person-years, no.536 446138 469424 283353 780450 89014 825
Age, years42.0 (5.2)41.5 (5.5)41.8 (5.3)42.0 (5.2)41.9 (5.2)40.1 (5.6)
Race, white, %949091959385
Height, cm165 (6.6)165 (6.7)165 (6.7)165 (6.6)165 (6.6)165 (6.8)
BMI, kg/m²25.2 (5.3)25.5 (6.2)23.7 (4.8)26.7 (5.9)25.5 (5.6)23.6 (4.8)
Postmenopausal, %8.8118.99.89.98.1
Current menopausal hormone use among postmenopausal women, %666362656663
Family history of colorectal cancer, %5.85.65.76.05.84.8
Screening lower endoscopy within the past 10 years, %3.33.13.23.13.23.5
Lower endoscopy due to other indications within the past 10 years, %6.58.36.87.56.96.6
Ever smokers, %363332363829
Pack-years among ever smokers12.3 (9.4)15.5 (11.3)13.7 (10.5)13.1 (9.8)13.9 (10.3)11.6 (9.4)
Physical activity, MET-hour/week24.5 (26.4)19.9 (24.6)21.3 (24.8)23.2 (25.4)20.9 (24.1)29.8 (33.1)
Regular use of aspirin, %111210121110
Regular use of non-aspirin NSAIDs, %263122332822
Current use of multivitamins, %474247454152
Dietary intake
 Alcohol, g/day3.7 (6.3)2.3 (5.2)2.8 (5.6)3.6 (6.3)3.2 (6.1)3.1 (6.4)
 Red and processed meat, servings/week5.5 (3.7)8.1 (4.5)6.3 (4.1)6.8 (4.1)6.1 (3.9)6.1 (4.1)
 Dietary fibre, g/day20.1 (5.6)14.6 (3.9)17.9 (5.6)18.4 (4.9)18.2 (5.7)18.7 (5.7)
 Total folate, µg/day523 (267)410 (213)497 (267)478 (234)455 (258)597 (252)
 Total calcium, mg/day1119 (438)837 (329)1018 (417)1042 (395)1022 (439)1039 (377)
 Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 score†‡42.4 (8.9)35.3 (7.5)40.3 (9.4)38.9 (8.1)39.2 (8.9)43.2 (9.5)
  • *Data are presented as mean (SD) of person-years unless otherwise indicated. All values other than age were directly standardised to the age distribution (in 5-year intervals) of all participants.

  • †Without sugar-sweetened beverages and alcohol.

  • ‡According to the predefined intake criteria for 11 dietary components (eg, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and legumes, red and processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, sodium, alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids and trans fatty acids), a score ranging from 0 to 10 was given to each component, yielding a total score ranging from 0 to 110. A higher score reflects better diet quality.

  • BMI, body mass index; MET, metabolic equivalent of task; NHSII, Nurses’ Health Study II; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.