Table 1

Mother and infant baseline characteristics. Women delivering via caesarean section received antibiotics prior to skin incision (group A) or after clamping of the umbilical cord (group B). Comparison between both caesarean groups was done using the χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test for dichotomous variables and Student’s t-test or Mann-Whitney U for normally and non-normally distributed continuous data. Vaginally delivering women (group C) were included as a controls and were not exposed to antibiotics

CharacteristicsGroup A (n=20)Group B (n=20)Group C (n=23)P value
Maternal age at birth, median (IQR), years36.6 (33.4–39.3)36.0 (31.7–39.0)32.3 (30.8–35.9)0.550
BMI, median (IQR), kg/m²22.8 (19.8–24.3)23.8 (21.2–25.0)21.9 (20.8–23.3)0.594
Gravida, median (IQR)3 (2–4)3 (2–4)2 (1–3)0.620
Para, median (IQR)1 (1–1)1 (0–2)1 (0–1)0.779
Maternal diet at birth
 Vegetarian1 (5)1 (5)3 (13)0.970
 Non-vegetarian18 (90)19 (95)20 (87)
 Missing1 (5.0)0 (0)0 (0)
First or repeat caesarean section
 First5 (25)9 (45)NA0.185
 Repeat15 (75)11 (55)NA
Gestational age, median (IQR), weeks+days39+0 (37+6−39+6)39+0 (38+5−39+2)39+6 (38+4−40+3)0.383
Birth weight, g3518 (380)3442 (593)3385 (484)0.634
Sex
 Female12 (60)7 (35)14 (61)0.113
 Male8 (40)13 (65)9 (39)
P value birth weight
 p <100 (0)3 (15)0 (0)0.341
 p 10–508 (40)6 (30)11 (48)
 p 51–899 (45)8 (40)10 (44)
 p >903 (15)3 (15)2 (9)
Apgar score, median (IQR)
 1 min9 (9–9)9 (9–9)9 (8–9)0.947
 5 min10 (10–10)10 (10–10)10 (9–10)0.862
Meconium stained amniotic fluid0 (0)1 (5)3 (13)0.311
Feeding type
 Breastfed10 (50)10 (50)15 (65)0.403
 Formula fed6 (30)3 (15)4 (17)
 Combination4 (20)7 (35)4 (17)