Table 2

Crude and adjusted HRs for the association between the use of PPIs and gastric cancer compared with the use of H2RAs

EventsPerson-yearsIncidence rate (95% CI) *Crude HRCalendar-year weighted HR (95% CI)Marginal HR (95% CI) †
H2RAs (n=198 306)244947 41825.8 (22.6 to 29.2)1.001.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
PPIs (n=973 281)11664 887 77123.9 (22.5 to 25.3)0.921.34 (1.14 to 1.57)1.45 (1.06 to 1.98)
Cumulative duration of proton pump inhibitors
 <2 years8613 830 73822.5 (21.0 to 24.0)0.821.21 (1.03 to 1.42)1.33 (0.96 to 1.83)
 2–3.9 years140518 71927.0 (22.7 to 31.8)1.161.65 (1.31 to 2.07)1.88 (1.33 to 2.65)
 ≥4 years165538 31430.7 (26.2 to 35.7)1.472.09 (1.67 to 2.62)2.40 (1.68 to 3.45)
Cumulative omeprazole dose equivalents
 <14 600 mg8863 933 69722.5 (21.1 to 24.1)0.831.22 (1.04 to 1.43)1.33 (0.97 to 1.83)
 14 600–28 199 mg147502 89229.2 (24.7 to 34.4)1.271.81 (1.45 to 2.26)2.05 (1.46 to 2.89)
 ≥29 200 mg143451 18229.5 (24.7 to 34.9)1.392.03 (1.60 to 2.58)2.34 (1.62 to 3.37)
Time since proton pump inhibitor initiation
 <2 years293892 17132.8 (29.2 to 36.8)0.941.63 (1.17 to 2.29)1.25 (0.69 to 2.28)
 2–3.9 years3341 404 88423.8 (21.3 to 26.5)0.811.24 (0.92 to 1.67)1.32 (0.79 to 2.19)
 ≥4 years5392 590 71620.8 (19.1 to 22.6)0.981.26 (1.01 to 1.56)1.82 (1.09 to 3.02)
  • *Crude incidence rate per 100 000 person-years.

  • †Weighted using standardised mortality ratio weights.

  • H2RA, histamine-2 receptor antagonist; PPI, proton pump inhibitor.