Table 1

Baseline characteristics of PPI and H2RA users before and after weighting

CharacteristicBefore weightingAfter weighting*
PPIH2RAASDPPIH2RAASD
Total973 281198 306973 281972 083
Age (mean, SD)60.4 (13.0)60.4 (13.1)0.0060.4 (13.0)60.4 (28.9)0.00
Male438 592 (45.1)85 505 (43.1)0.04438 592 (45.1)436 521 (44.9)0.00
Alcohol-related disorders55 957 (5.8)7912 (4.0)0.0855 957 (5.8)56 352 (5.8)0.00
Smoking status
 Current260 166 (26.7)50 856 (25.7)0.03260 166 (26.7)259 094 (26.7)0.00
 Former141 467 (14.5)20 490 (10.3)0.13141 467 (14.5)142 286 (14.6)0.00
 Never538 106 (55.3)100 006 (50.4)0.10538 106 (55.3)537 236 (55.3)0.00
 Missing33 542 (3.5)26 954 (13.6)0.3733 542 (3.5)33 467 (3.4)0.00
Body mass index
 <25 kg/m2 361 873 (37.2)67 314 (33.9)0.07361 873 (37.2)362 379 (37.3)0.00
 25–29.9 kg/m2 326 240 (33.5)58 226 (29.4)0.09326 240 (33.5)325 379 (33.5)0.00
 ≥30 kg/m2 177 306 (18.2)27 732 (14.0)0.12177 306 (18.2)176 823 (18.2)0.00
 Missing107 862 (11.1)45 034 (22.7)0.31107 862 (11.1)107 502 (11.1)0.00
Atrial fibrillation34 778 (3.6)6037 (3.0)0.0334 778 (3.6)35 576 (3.7)0.00
Anaemia89 930 (9.2)14 860 (7.5)0.0689 930 (9.2)90 836 (9.3)0.00
Cancer81 000 (8.3)13 416 (6.8)0.0681 000 (8.3)82 457 (8.5)0.01
Congestive heart failure21 292 (2.2)6372 (3.2)0.0621 292 (2.2)21 920 (2.3)0.00
Gastric metaplasia293 (0.0)55 (0.0)0.00293 (0.0)371 (0.0)0.00
Hypercholesterolaemia293 279 (30.1)33 809 (17.1)0.31293 279 (30.1)292 404 (30.1)0.00
Hypertension311 466 (32.0)51 441 (25.9)0.14311 466 (32.0)310 451 (31.9)0.00
Venous thromboembolism44 121 (4.5)7944 (4.0)0.0344 121 (4.5)44 645 (4.6)0.00
Chronic kidney disease54 247 (5.6)4044 (2.0)0.1954 247 (5.6)55 217 (5.7)0.00
Stroke49 495 (5.1)10 105 (5.1)0.0049 495 (5.1)50 673 (5.2)0.01
Hernia32 113 (3.3)7586 (3.8)0.0332 113 (3.3)33 737 (3.5)0.01
Gastrointestinal bleeding85 760 (8.8)13 108 (6.6)0.0885 760 (8.8)85 927 (8.8)0.00
Dialysis794 (0.1)304 (0.2)0.02794 (0.1)807 (0.1)0.00
Gastric surgery2678 (0.3)645 (0.3)0.012678 (0.3)2854 (0.3)0.00
Barrett’s oesophagus2928 (0.3)79 (0.0)0.062928 (0.3)3627 (0.4)0.01
Helicobacter pylori infection20 440 (2.1)982 (0.5)0.1420 440 (2.1)20 935 (2.2)0.00
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease86 985 (8.9)17 461 (8.8)0.0086 985 (8.9)90 581 (9.3)0.01
Peptic ulcer disease29 358 (3.0)8623 (4.4)0.0729 358 (3.0)29 795 (3.1)0.00
Dyspepsia169 147 (17.4)60 869 (30.7)0.32169 147 (17.4)173 000 (17.8)0.01
Gastritis41 343 (4.3)11 094 (5.6)0.0641 343 (4.3)42 142 (4.3)0.00
Stomach pain273 864 (28.1)58 350 (29.4)0.03273 864 (28.1)277 733 (28.6)0.01
Metformin56 972 (5.9)6286 (3.2)0.1356 972 (5.9)57 053 (5.9)0.00
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs692 208 (71.1)123 534 (62.3)0.19692 208 (71.1)689 062 (70.9)0.01
Antiplatelets231 359 (23.8)37 483 (18.9)0.12231 359 (23.8)232 216 (23.9)0.00
Dual antiplatelets67 206 (6.9)9164 (4.6)0.1067 206 (6.9)68 440 (7.0)0.01
Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors82 509 (8.5)8622 (4.4)0.1782 509 (8.5)82 734 (8.5)0.00
Prostaglandin analogues1564 (0.2)1101 (0.6)0.071564 (0.2)1692 (0.2)0.00
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors216 197 (22.2)28 459 (14.4)0.20216 197 (22.2)216 694 (22.3)0.00
Anticoagulants37 461 (3.9)6718 (3.4)0.0237 461 (3.9)38 322 (3.9)0.00
Steroids155 048 (15.9)27 031 (13.6)0.06155 048 (15.9)156 362 (16.1)0.00
Year of cohort entry
 1990–19947839 (0.8)33 809 (17.1)0.597839 (0.8)7857 (0.8)0.00
 1995–199936 611 (3.8)50 456 (25.4)0.6536 611 (3.8)36 711 (3.8)0.00
 2000–2004148 408 (15.3)62 201 (31.4)0.39148 408 (15.3)148 453 (15.3)0.00
 2005–2009327 938 (33.7)30 027 (15.1)0.44327 938 (33.7)328 102 (33.8)0.00
 2010–2018452 485 (46.5)21 813 (11.0)0.85452 485 (46.5)450 960 (46.4)0.00
  • Before weighting: counts (percentages), unless otherwise stated; after weighting: count, rounded to the nearest whole number, (percentages), unless otherwise stated.

  • *Pseudopopulation created by applying standardised mortality ratio weights from calendar time-specific propensity scores.

  • ASD, absolute standardised difference; H2RA, histamine-2 receptor antagonist; PPI, proton pump inhibitor.;