Table 1

Baseline characteristics of proton pump inhibitor and histamine-2 receptor antagonist users before and after weighting

Before weightingAfter weighting*
Characteristic PPI H2RA ASD PPI H2RA ASD
Total1 293 749292 3871 293 7491 294 713
Age (mean, SD)52.6 (17.6)50.3 (18.3)0.1252.6 (17.6)52.6 (37.3)0.00
Male583 401 (45.1)125 897 (43.1)0.04583 401 (45.1)589 773 (45.6)0.01
Alcohol related disorders72 658 (5.6)11 746 (4.0)0.0772 658 (5.6)73 068 (5.6)0.00
Smoking Status
 Current286 577 (22.2)72 347 (24.7)0.06286 577 (22.2)289 184 (22.3)0.00
 Former366 403 (28.3)51 301 (17.6)0.27366 403 (28.3)365 923 (28.3)0.00
 Never593 370 (45.9)130 113 (44.5)0.03593 370 (45.9)592 021 (45.7)0.00
 Missing47 399 (3.7)38 626 (13.2)0.3547 399 (3.7)47 585 (3.7)0.00
Body mass index
 <25 kg/m2 428 551 (33.1)99 667 (34.1)0.02428 551 (33.1)431 364 (33.3)0.00
 25–29.9 kg/m2 399 316 (30.9)78 045 (26.7)0.09399 316 (30.9)396 685 (30.6)0.00
 ≥30 kg/m2 290 289 (22.4)45 218 (15.4)0.18290 289 (22.4)289 311 (22.4)0.00
 Missing175 593 (13.6)69 457 (23.8)0.26175 593 (13.6)177 353 (13.7)0.00
Type 2 diabetes76 125 (5.9)9429 (3.2)0.1376 125 (5.9)76 388 (5.9)0.00
Hypertension315 352 (24.4)53 032 (18.1)0.15315 352 (24.4)316 400 (24.4)0.00
Coronary artery disease136 300 (10.5)32 677 (11.2)0.02136 300 (10.5)137 106 (10.6)0.00
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder88 909 (6.9)25 219 (8.6)0.0788 909 (6.9)89 933 (7.0)0.00
Cancer77 844 (6.0)13 209 (4.5)0.0777 844 (6.0)79 864 (6.2)0.01
Crohn’s disease5115 (0.4)885 (0.3)0.025115 (0.4)5404 (0.4)0.00
UC7865 (0.6)1484 (0.5)0.017865 (0.6)8336 (0.6)0.00
Other IBD2349 (0.2)394 (0.1)0.012349 (0.2)2492 (0.2)0.00
GI polyps16 170 (1.3)2068 (0.7)0.0616 170 (1.3)16 034 (1.2)0.00
Cholecystectomy35 359 (2.7)7716 (2.6)0.0135 359 (2.7)36 162 (2.8)0.00
Solid organ transplant1191 (0.1)698 (0.2)0.041191 (0.1)1272 (0.1)0.00
Peptic ulcer disease31 715 (2.5)9978 (3.4)0.0631 715 (2.5)32 459 (2.5)0.00
GORD115 880 (9.0)24 378 (8.3)0.02115 880 (9.0)119 752 (9.3)0.01
Dyspepsia232 197 (18.0)89 299 (30.5)0.30232 197 (18.0)239 284 (18.5)0.01
Helicobacter pylori infection29 269 (2.3)1606 (0.6)0.1529 269 (2.3)30 665 (2.4)0.01
Barrett’s oesophagus2923 (0.2)86 (0.0)0.062923 (0.2)3305 (0.3)0.01
Gastritis/duodenitis58 373 (4.5)18 877 (6.5)0.0958 373 (4.5)59 573 (4.6)0.00
Stomach pain405 117 (31.3)95 561 (32.7)0.03405 117 (31.3)413 004 (31.9)0.01
Hormone replacement therapy158 233 (12.2)33 504 (11.5)0.02158 233 (12.2)158 046 (12.2)0.00
Aspirin234 232 (18.1)40 567 (13.9)0.12234 232 (18.1)233 410 (18.0)0.00
Other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs882 495 (68.2)170 674 (58.4)0.21882 495 (68.2)878 900 (67.9)0.01
Statins247 703 (19.2)24 229 (8.3)0.32247 703 (19.2)248 201 (19.2)0.00
Bisphosphonates42 257 (3.3)3644 (1.3)0.1442 257 (3.3)43 548 (3.4)0.01
Prostaglandin analogues1595 (0.1)1153 (0.4)0.051595 (0.1)1710 (0.1)0.00
Mammographic screening296 749 (22.9)45 178 (15.5)0.19296 749 (22.9)298 034 (23.0)0.00
Prostate-specific antigen test113 480 (8.8)9807 (3.4)0.23113 480 (8.8)113 427 (8.8)0.00
Colorectal cancer screening116 028 (9.0)9384 (3.2)0.24116 028 (9.0)117 518 (9.1)0.00
Influenza vaccination502 581 (38.9)86 798 (29.7)0.19502 581 (38.9)506 735 (39.1)0.01
Year of cohort entry
 1990–19949318 (0.7)44 492 (15.2)0.569318 (0.7)9331 (0.7)0.00
 1995–199945 318 (3.5)69 634 (23.8)0.6245 318 (3.5)45 395 (3.5)0.00
 2000–2004189 891 (14.7)92 139 (31.5)0.41189 891 (14.7)189 804 (14.7)0.00
 2005–2009426 895 (33.0)48 367 (16.6)0.39426 895 (33.0)427 304 (33.0)0.00
 2010–2018622 327 (48.1)37 755 (12.9)0.83622 327 (48.1)622 881 (48.1)0.00
  • Before weighting: counts (percentages), unless otherwise stated; after weighting: count, rounded to the nearest whole number, (percentages), unless otherwise stated.

  • *Pseudopopulation created by applying standardised mortality ratio weights.

  • ASD, absolute standardised difference; PPI, proton pump inhibitor; H2RA, histamine-2 receptor antagonist.;