Table 2

Baseline characteristics of participants with a history of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, who received uninterrupted biological therapy since recruitment and had an antibody test between 14 and 70 days after a third dose with an mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine

VariableLevelVedolizumabInfliximabP value
VaccineBNT162b236.2% (67/185)41.2% (211/512)0.26
ChAdOx1 nCoV-1963.8% (118/185)58.8% (301/512)
Max anti-N prefirst dose0.3 (9.6)0.2 (3.4)<0.0001
Max anti-S prefirst dose1.6 (13.0)0.6 (3.8)0.00022
Max anti-N presecond dose0.7 (14.5)0.2 (3.9)<0.0001
Max anti-N presampling postsecond dose4.2 (12.2)1.0 (7.5)<0.0001
Max anti-N pre/at sampling postsecond dose ≥0.1297.3% (180/185)95.3% (488/512)0.29
Positive PCR or patient-reported swab presampling postsecond dose46.5% (86/185)53.1% (272/512)0.12
Age (years)45.3 (35.9–58.4)39.9 (30.3–51.5)<0.0001
SexFemale45.4% (84/185)42.0% (214/510)0.56
Male54.9% (101/185)57.8% (295/510)
IntersexN<5N<5
Prefer not to sayN<5N<5
EthnicityWhite92.4% (171/185)89.8% (458/510)0.58
Asian4.9% (9/185)6.7% (34/510)
MixedN<51.4% (7/510)
BlackN<51.6% (8/510)
OtherN<5N<5
DiagnosisCrohn’s disease35.1% (65/185)64.8% (332/512)<0.0001
UC/IBDU64.9% (120/185)35.2% (180/512)
Duration of IBD (years)10.0 (5.0–17.0)9.0 (3.0–16.0)0.059
Age at IBD diagnosis (years)33.3 (23.8–41.8)27.2 (20.1–37.6)0.00010
Immunomodulators at vaccine20.0% (37/185)59.4% (304/512)<0.0001
5-ASA34.6% (64/185)21.3% (109/512)0.00049
Steroids5.4% (10/185)1.2% (6/512)0.0024
BMI26.7 (23.9–31.9)26.0 (23.4–29.6)0.028
Heart disease4.9% (9/185)1.6% (8/509)0.023
Diabetes5.9% (11/185)2.9% (15/510)0.073
Lung disease18.4% (34/185)12.5% (64/510)0.064
Kidney disease3.8% (7/185)N<50.0019
CancerN<5N<5
SmokerYes6.5% (12/185)6.5% (33/510)0.0075
Not currently40.0% (74/185)27.8% (142/510)
Never53.5% (99/185)65.7% (335/510)
Exposure to documented cases of COVID-1917.3% (32/185)13.8% (70/510)0.27
Income deprivation score0.107 (0.061–0.164)0.091 (0.053–0.164)0.085
Active disease (PRO2)17.3% (31/179)18.2% (88/484)0.91
Time between first two vaccine doses (weeks)10.9 (9.7–11.1)10.9 (9.9–11.1)0.93
Time between second and third vaccine doses (weeks)27.1 (25.6–29.1)27.6 (25.7–30.0)0.14
Time from second dose to serum sample (weeks)33.1 (30.1–35.9)33.4 (30.3–36.5)0.36
Time from third dose to serum sample (weeks)6.1 (3.7–7.6)5.7 (3.9–7.7)0.96
  • Values presented are median (IQR) or percentage (numerator/denominator). P values represent the results of a Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test or Fisher’s exact test.

  • 5-ASA, 5-aminosalicylic acid; BMI, body mass index; IBDU, IBD unclassified; mRNA, messenger RNA; PRO2, IBD disease activity.