Table 3

Potential inflammatory nutrients in elemental diets

Remove or reduce
Milk fatExperimentally promoting gut inflammation21
Fish oilExperimentally promoting gut inflammation36 38
Soybean oilExperimentally promoting gut inflammation36 38
High omega-3 or omega-6 PUFA oilExperimentally promoting gut inflammation36 38
MaltodextrinExperimentally promoting gut inflammation32
Fibre (eg, inulin and fructooligosacharides)Experimental and clinical evidence87
Plant-based proteinExperimental evidence,89 human gut microbiota modulation87
Olive oilExperimental evidence153 154
  • Elemental diets (formula feed) contain potentially inflammatory nutrients indicated by experimental studies. These studies suggest to restrict or enrich specific food constituents to improve efficacy. Note that an elemental diet should be used in conjunction with counselling by nutritionists and that the efficacy and safety of the proposed regimens require corroboration by controlled nutritional trials in patients with IBD.

  • IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid.