Table 3

Demographic information of enrolled individuals and Helicobacter pylori infection risk factors

CategoriesTotal no. of individual (31098), n (%)H. pylori-infected, nH. pylori uninfected, nInfection rate (%)Crude OR
(95% CI)
P value*Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
P value
Demographic information
Geographical areas
Southwest6046 (19.44)2145390135.48ReferenceReference
North4975 (16.00)1903307238.251.13 (1.04 to 1.23)0.0031.17 (1.06 to 1.29)<0.001†
Central2171 (6.98)823134837.911.08 (0.97 to 1.20)0.1541.13 (1.00 to 1.28)0.057
East8168 (26.27)3447472142.201.37 (1.27 to 1.47)<0.0011.29 (1.19 to 1.42)<0.001†
South3265 (10.50)1386187942.451.34 (1.22 to 1.47)<0.0011.37 (1.23 to 1.53)<0.001†
Northeast2576 (8.28)1077149941.811.42 (1.29 to 1.57)<0.0011.26 (1.12 to 1.41)<0.001†
Northwest3897 (12.53)1865203247.861.76 (1.61 to 1.91)<0.0011.64 (1.48 to 1.82)<0.001†
Gender
Female17 620 (56.66)698310 63739.63ReferenceReference
Male13 478 (43.34)5663781542.021.11 (1.06 to 1.16)<0.0011.14 (1.08 to 1.21)<0.001†
Age
Adult (≥18 years)27 317 (87.84)11 86915 44843.45ReferenceReference
Children and adolescents (<18 years)3781 (12.16)777300420.550.39 (0.35 to 0.42)<0.0010.57 (0.46 to 0.70)<0.001†
Marital status
Single6350 (20.42)1702464826.80ReferenceReference
Married24 092 (77.47)10 67813 41444.321.98 (1.86 to 2.11)<0.0011.31 (1.18 to 1.45)<0.001 †
Other656 (2.11)26639040.551.76 (1.48 to 2.09)<0.0011.34 (1.07 to 1.69)0.010 †
Resident location
City23 203 (74.61)932613 87740.19ReferenceReference
Rural7895 (25.39)3320457542.051.16 (1.10 to 1.23)<0.0011.06 (0.98 to 1.14)0.133
Education level
Middle/high school9861 (40.45)4287557443.47Reference<0.001Reference
College and above14 518 (59.55)6131838742.230.90 (0.85 to 0.95)<0.0010.85 (0.79 to 0.91)<0.001 †
Occupation
Farmer3723 (11.97)1579214442.41ReferenceReference
Worker3763 (12.10)1702206145.231.05 (0.95 to 1.15)0.3651.11 (0.97 to 1.27)0.127
Teacher1341 (4.31)59374844.220.94 (0.83 to 1.08)0.3961.05 (0.89 to 1.25)0.551
Investigator2423 (7.79)1040138342.920.88 (0.79 to 0.98)0.0251.04 (0.89 to 1.22)0.592
Doctor4090 (13.15)1729236142.270.90 (0.82 to 0.99)0.0221.09 (0.95 to 1.26)0.225
Soldier91 (0.29)444748.351.21 (0.79 to 1.87)0.3771.37 (0.84 to 2.24)0.213
Merchant1778 (5.72)79698244.771.04 (0.93 to 1.17)0.4881.07 (0.91 to 1.24)0.422
Others9752 (31.36)4224552843.310.95 (0.88 to 1.03)0.2291.10 (0.97 to 1.25)0.131
Student4137 (13.30)939319822.700.41 (0.37 to 0.46)0.0000.85 (0.69 to 1.05)0.132
Lifestyle-related factors
Drinking tap water
No28 900 (92.93)11 75917 14140.69Reference
Yes2198 (7.07)887131140.351.02 (0.93 to 1.12)0.698
Washing hands before meal and after defecation
No2430 (7.81)970146039.92Reference
Yes28 668 (92.19)11 67616 99240.730.97 (0.89 to 1.05)0.421
Cafeteria dining
Rare27 700 (89.07)11 31616 38440.85ReferenceReference
Frequent3398 (10.93)1330206839.140.90 (0.83 to 0.97)0.0060.93 (0.85 to 1.02)0.143
Dining at road side restaurant
Rare26 318 (84.63)10 53915 77940.04ReferenceReference
Frequent4780 (15.37)2107267344.081.15 (1.08 to 1.23)<0.0010.99 (0.91 to 1.07)0.789
Dining at hotel restaurant
Rare28 578 (91.90)11 53417 04440.36ReferenceReference
Frequent2520 (8.10)1112140844.131.12 (1.02 to 1.22)0.0131.09 (0.98 to 1.21)0.124
No. of infected family members exposed‡
013 804 (44.39)4849895535.13ReferenceReference
111 358 (36.52)4947641143.561.56 (1.48 to 1.65)<0.0011.52 (1.43 to 1.62)<0.001†
24121 (13.25)1882223945.671.67 (1.56 to 1.80)<0.0011.69 (1.55 to 1.85)<0.001†
31260 (4.05)63762350.562.12 (1.88 to 2.38)<0.0012.12 (1.84 to 2.45)<0.001†
4382 (1.23)22515758.903.02 (2.45 to 3.73)<0.0012.86 (2.22 to 3.68)<0.001†
Five and above173 (0.56)1066761.273.34 (2.44 to 4.56)<0.0012.72 (1.86 to 4.00)<0.001†
Medical history
Gastrointestinal symptoms within last 1 year
No22 519 (72.41)886313 65639.36Reference
Yes8579 (27.59)3783479644.101.01 (0.96 to 1.07)0.609
Previous H. pylori diagnosis
Did not test H. pylori24 742 (79.56)926115 48137.43ReferenceReference
Tested as negative3398 (10.93)687271120.220.42 (0.38 to 0.46)<0.0010.44 (0.39 to 0.48)<0.001†
Tested as positive2958 (9.51)269826091.216.56 (5.71 to 7.54)<0.0016.28 (5.41 to 7.28)<0.001†
History of gastroduodenal surgery
No30 782 (98.98)12 49618 28640.60Reference
Yes316 (1.02)15016647.471.10 (0.86 to 1.40)0.453
  • *P value was calculated by univariate logistic regression, p<0.05 indicates that infection risk increase/decrease significantly compared with the reference groups.

  • †These are independent risk (protective) factors for H. pylori infection compared with the reference group. P value was calculated by multivariate logistic regression and was adjusted with items of p<0.1 in univariate logistic regression.

  • ‡Number of infected family members exposed is defined as the number of H. pylori-infected persons in a household that the participant is exposed.