Table 4

Demographic information and risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents

CategoryTotal no. of children/ adolescents (3781), n (%)H. pylori infected, nH. pylori uninfected, nH. pylori infection rate (%)Crude OR
(95% CI)
P value*Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
P value
Demographic information
Gender
Female1771 (46.84)351142019.82Reference
Male2010 (53.16)426158421.191.10 (0.93 to 1.29)0.265
Age (year)
1–6966 (25.55)17079617.60ReferenceReference
7–111522 (40.25)309121320.301.18 (0.96 to 1.45)0.1241.32 (0.79 to 2.22)0.287
12–171293 (34.20)29899523.051.35 (1.09 to 1.67)0.0051.34 (0.76 to 2.36)0.309
No. of siblings
02310 (61.09)473183720.48Reference
11290 (34.12)269102120.851.02 (0.86 to 1.21)0.821
2147 (3.89)3011720.411.02 (0.67 to 1.54)0.943
Three and more34 (0.90)52914.710.68 (0.26 to 1.77)0.433
Birth order
First3012 (79.66)640237221.25Reference
Second702 (18.57)12957318.380.85 (0.69 to 1.05)0.121
Third57 (1.51)75012.280.53 (0.24 to 1.18)0.530
Fourth and more10 (0.26)1910.000.42 (0.05 to 3.33)0.412
Living habits
Drinking tap water
No3502 (92.62)705279720.13ReferenceReference
Yes279 (7.38)7220725.811.39 (1.05 to 1.84)0.0231.64 (0.74 to 3.64)0.227
Washing hands before meal and after defecation
No328 (8.67)8124724.70ReferenceReference
Yes3453 (91.33)696275720.160.76 (0.59 to 1.00)0.0470.87 (0.39 to 1.91)0.723
Cafeteria dining
Rare3203 (84.71)657254620.51Reference
Frequent578 (15.29)12045820.761.02 (0.82 to 1.27)0.870
Dining at road side restaurant
Rare3514 (92.94)709280520.18ReferenceReference
Frequent267 (7.06)6819925.471.38 (1.04 to 1.84)0.0282.06 (0.99 to 4.28)0.052
Dining at hotel restaurant
Rare3623 (95.82)743288020.51Reference
Frequent158 (4.18)3412421.521.05 (0.71 to 1.56)0.802
Parental mouth-to-mouth feeding
No3781 (100.00)777300420.55
Yes0 (0.00)00NANA
Habit of holding toys in mouth
No3605 (95.35)739286620.50Reference
Yes176 (4.65)3813821.591.07 (0.74 to 1.54)0.726
Parents kissing their children mouth-to-mouth
No3515 (92.96)721279420.51Reference
Yes266 (7.04)5621021.051.03 (0.76 to 1.40)0.833
Family member infection status
Father infected†
No1266 (52.77)203106316.03ReferenceReference
Yes1133 (47.23)30582826.921.91 (1.57 to 2.34)<0.0011.68 (1.08 to 2.61)0.020‡
Mother infected§
No1661 (57.02)248141314.93ReferenceReference
Yes1252 (42.98)33991327.082.06 (1.71 to 2.48)<0.0011.70 (1.10 to 2.63)0.017‡
Grandfather infected¶
No474 (52.20)8538917.93Reference
Yes434 (47.80)9334121.431.24 (0.89 to 1.72)0.209
Grandmother infected**
No728 (58.24)10961914.97ReferenceReference
Yes522 (41.76)12140123.181.72 (1.29 to 2.29)<0.0011.32 (0.85 to 2.03)0.214
Sibling infected
All negative or no sibling3449 (91.22)638281118.50ReferenceReference
At least one positive332 (8.78)13919341.873.19 (2.52 to 4.04)<0.0010.44 (0.17 to 1.10)0.080
  • *P value was calculated by univariate logistic regression, p<0.05 indicates that infection risk increase/decrease significantly compared with the reference group.

  • †Only children who cohabitated with their father were included.

  • ‡Independent risk factors for H. pylori infection compared with the reference group. P value was calculated by multivariate logistic regression and was adjusted with items of p<0.1 in univariate logistic regression.

  • §Only children who cohabitated with their mother were included.

  • ¶Only children who cohabitated with their grandfather were included.

  • **Only children who cohabitated with their grandmother were included.