Table 2

Sampling devices to collect gut microbiota samples

NameDimensions (mm)Storage capacity (µL)Type of samplingActuation mechanismTarget locationEvaluation
Cui et al 146 30×Φ 10.2262ActiveMotorSILP, in vivo
Yaw et al 147 31×Φ 1183.8*3ActiveMotorSIUnspecified
RSS capsule148 149 31×Φ 11.6ActiveMotorSI and colonCP, in vivo
Du et al 150 20×Φ 14300ActiveVacuum suctionSILP, benchtop experiments
MSCE151 32×Φ 11.6400ActiveVacuum suctionSICP, in vivo
Osmotic pill140 21.6×Φ 7.6120PassiveSI and colonLP, in vivo
IMBA capsule141 26.1×Φ 9.974PassiveSpring loaded latchSILP, in vivo
Salem et al 142 26.1×Φ 9.9200PassiveSpongeSILP, benchtop experiments
Hydrogel capsule143 144 15×Φ 9282.7PassiveHydrogelSILP, ex vivo
Hydrogel capsule145 15×Φ 9282.7PassiveHydrogelColonLP, in vivo
BCMAC152 11×Φ 842ActiveMagnetsSILP, in vivo
Diller et al 153 26×Φ 12.41500ActiveMagnetsSILP, ex vivo
Park et al 154 26×Φ 1115*3ActiveMagnetsSILP, ex vivo
Finocchiaro et al 155 30.5×Φ 11.5261*2DynamicMagnetsSILP, benchtop experiments
Rehan et al 156 30×Φ 12500DynamicSMA springsSILP, ex vivo
Rehan et al 158 45×Φ 12250DynamicSMA springSILP, ex vivo
  • *Indicates multiple compartments.

  • .BCMAC, blindly controlled magnetically actuated capsule; CP, commercial prototype (awaiting US Food and Drug Administration approval); IMBA, intestine microbiome aspiration; LP, laboratory prototype; MSCE, magnetically controlled sampling capsule endoscope; RSS, recoverable sampling system; SI, small intestine; SMA, shape memory alloy.