Table 2

Patient characteristics at baseline before and after inverse-probability of treatment weighting

Before weightingAfter weighting
GLP1 agonist initiators (n=1026)Non-initiators (n=15 633)SMDGLP1 agonist initiators (n=968)Non-initiators (n=15 326)SMD
Included unique patients, n10265744
Sex, n (%)0.100.03
Men577 (56.2)9549 (61.1)610 (63.0)9420 (61.5)
Women449 (43.8)6084 (38.9)358 (37.0)5906 (38.5)
Age in years, median (p25–p75)60 (52–66)63 (56–71)0.3962 (54–70)63 (56–70)0.09
Country of birth, n (%)0.020.03
Nordic758 (73.9)11 432 (73.1)735 (75.9)11 406 (74.4)
Other268 (26.1)4201 (26.9)233 (24.1)3920 (25.6)
Education in years, n (%)
<10281 (27.4)5335 (34.1)0.15337 (34.8)5271 (34.4)0.01
10–12529 (51.6)7208 (46.1)0.11459 (47.4)7263 (47.4)0.00
>12197 (19.2)2779 (17.8)0.04172 (17.8)2793 (18.2)0.01
Missing19 (1.9)311 (2.0)0.010 (0.0)0 (0.0)
Aetiology of liver disease, n (%)
ALD with or without viral hepatitis102 (9.9)1863 (11.9)0.04108 (11.2)1839 (12.0)0.03
Viral hepatitis without ALD340 (33.1)6267 (40.1)0.21375 (38.8)5993 (39.1)0.01
Other146 (14.2)2427 (15.5)0.06146 (15.0)2384 (15.6)0.01
MASLD438 (42.7)5076 (32.5)0.14339 (35.0)5110 (33.3)0.04
Compensated cirrhosis161 (15.7)2721 (17.4)0.05167 (17.3)2668 (17.4)0.00
Diabetes duration in years, median (p25–p75)7 (4–11)7 (3–10)0.116 (3–11)7 (4–10)0.00
Chronic liver disease duration in years, median (p25–p75)7 (3–12)8 (3–12)0.067 (3–13)8 (3–12)0.01
Antidiabetic medication other than metformin or GLP1 agonists before baseline, n (%)857 (83.5)10 232 (65.5)0.42675 (69.7)10 174 (66.4)0.07
Insulin540 (52.6)5866 (37.5)0.31425 (43.9)*5850 (38.2)*0.11
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors207 (20.2)1154 (7.4)0.38159 (16.5)*1142 (7.4)*0.28
Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 inhibitors386 (37.6)3114 (19.9)0.40300 (31.0)*3094 (20.2)*0.25
Other425 (41.4)5624 (36.0)0.11331 (34.2)*5537 (36.1)*0.04
Comorbidities at baseline, n (%)
Obesity408 (39.8)3270 (20.9)0.42232 (23.9)3404 (22.2)0.04
Cardiovascular disease656 (63.9)9481 (60.7)0.07589 (60.8)9367 (61.1)0.01
Microvascular complications to diabetes208 (20.3)2989 (19.1)0.03182 (18.8)2944 (19.2)0.01
Cancer other than HCC131 (12.8)2478 (15.9)0.09136 (14.0)2427 (15.8)0.05
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease82 (8.0)1010 (6.5)0.0666 (6.9)1014 (6.6)0.01
Alcohol use disorder121 (11.8)2278 (14.6)0.08143 (14.8)2243 (14.6)0.00
Mental health disorder290 (28.3)3960 (25.3)0.07259 (26.7)3935 (25.7)0.02
Direct-acting antivirals before baseline, n (%)108 (10.5)1627 (10.4)0.0095 (9.8)1606 (10.5)0.02
  • *The variables for individual antidiabetic medications are not balanced after weighting because the variable for antidiabetic medications other than metformin or GLP1 agonists was modelled as a binary exposure.

  • .ALD, alcohol-related liver disease; GLP1, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; MASLD, metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease; SMD, standardised mean difference.