Table 2

Patients recommended for surveillance11 17 32 72–74 144

Patient populationExpected incidence per populationThreshold incidence for cost-effectiveness
Hepatitis B cirrhosis3–8% per year0.2–1.5%
Hepatitis C cirrhosis3–5% per year1.5%
Alcohol-related cirrhosis1.3–3% per year1.5%
NASH cirrhosisUnknown, estimated 1–2% per year1.5%
HaemochromatosisUnknown, estimated >1.5% per year1.5%
α1-Antitrypsin deficiencyUnknown, estimated >1.5% per year1.5%
Stage 4 primary PBC3–5% per year1.5%
Other cirrhosisUnknown1.5%
Non-cirrhotic hepatitis B
Asian male hepatitis B carriers aged >40 years0.4–0.6% per year0.2%
Asian female hepatitis B carriers aged >50 years0.4–0.6% per year0.2%
Hepatitis B carrier with family history of HCCIncidence higher than in those without family history0.2%
African Black people with Heaptitis BHCC occurs at younger age0.2%
Patients with sufficient risk by risk score such as Page-B>3% 5-year incidence if score >100.2%
  • HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; NASH, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis ; PBC, primary biliary cholangitis.